Table of content

Deutsches Inhaltverzeichnis

English version

Start here


Löhner's rope roll

What is a rope roll? - Pulley? - Array of the rope rolls - Lubrication - How much strain can the rope roll bear? - Principle of the rope roll? - Use of rope rolls

Transporting stones: using sledges, tracks and rope rolls

Solution for transport problems - Mass production of sledges - Rolls on rails - Lubrication - Anchoring - Ropes - Hauling gear

Transport up the flank of the pyramid with Löhner's rope roll

Configuration of track system - Rope rolls on pyramid flank - Anchoring the tracks - Anchoring the rope roll - Starting at the foot - Changing ropes - Rope roll station on edge - Arrival of stone on plateau - Laying the stones - Safety

Transport of the granite beams

Solution for transport problems - Harbor to pyramid - Large standard sized blocks as counterweights - Exact method of operation - Placement of components - Starting the sledge - Up the pyramid flank - Position of rope-roll-stations - Intermediate rope roll stations - Last rope roll station on edge

Transport of the Pyramidion

Terminology - Importance of pyramidion - Solution for transport problems - The last few meters - Preparations - The pyramidion - What kind of pyramidia have been found?


The building of the pyramids step by step

Stone quarries and transport down the Nile - Transport on land - The pyramid building yard - Planning the construction project - Construction steps - Workers needed

The pyramid building yard

Building yard - Route of a stone - Planning - Rope roll stations where?

How many workers are necessary for building the pyramid of Khufu?

Stone quarries - Transport by boat - Transport on land - Cutting and fitting the stones in the building yard - Up the flank of the pyramid - Transport of the large granite blocks - Laying the stone blocks and polishing them - Total

Transport on boats

The Nile and the Nile channels - Transporting stones on the Nile - Heavy loads on special barges - The harbor facilities at the quarries in Aswan - Steering the barges - Unloading in the harbor of Giza



Cheops pyramid

Overview Giza plateau - Overview pyramid of Khufu - King's chamber - Stress-relieving or stressing chambers? - Grand Gallery - Antechamber with Portcullis - Air Shafts - Satellite pyramids


Cutting granite with bronze or iron tools?

Stone suited for splitting? - Granite from Assuan - Tools for splitting and cutting granite - Comparing with the present-day processing of granite - Sawing granite - Origin of Egyptian iron - Limestone

Stone quarries for the pyramid stones

Properties of the stones - Aswan stone quarries (granite) - Tura stone quarries (limestone) - Giza stone quarries (limestone) - Quarries in Ancient Egypt

The outer stones (casing)

Importance of outer stones - Procedure - The Tura stone - Stone dressing on the pyramid plateau? - Stone bond patterns - Laying the outer stones - Jointing and polishing - Polishing from the top down? - Special stones - Hiding the entrance - Khafre's Pyramid - Mantle or integral part? - Stone courses


Alignment of the pyramids and controlling the shape of the pyramid

Survey and controlling - Obtaining a pyramid shape - Possible mistakes while building a pyramid - Egyptian units of measurement - Determining right angles - Angle of inclination and seked - Precise North-South alignment


Theories of pyramid ramp systems disproved

The rope roll - Five requirements - Facts contradicting all models - The main problems of all ramp - What has been found?

All ramp models

Rope roll - 5 requirements - Winding ramp - Straight-on ramp - Zigzag ramp - Internal ramp - Combination ramp model - Up two pyramid flanks - Machines - Using horses or oxen - What has been found?


Pyramid numbers

Dimensions of the Cheops-pyramid (pyramid of Khufu)

The pyramid of Khufu - Output / performance - Building material - Dimensions of the pyramid - Dimensions in Royal Cubits

Calculating the force and kinetic coefficient of friction

The results in a nutshell - Factors for calculating - Friction and coefficient of friction - Friction and lubrication - Force exerted by each hauler - Force on inclined plane, no rope roll - Force dependent on friction - Force dependent on adhesion - Including weight and gravity - Calculating haulers with / without rope roll - Checking with more friction - Checking with more extended force - Heavy granite blocks - Conclusions


Literature / sources

Publications Franz Löhner - List of references - Lists with literature in the internet - Videos



Scientific links - Museums and institutes - Photos and Paintings of pyramids - Harebrained theories about how the pyramids were built



Write to Franz Löhner




Copyright 2006:

Franz Löhner

Concept and Design, English Texts:

Teresa (Zubi) Zuberbühler