

Builder  
Khufu (ChuefuiChnum or KhnumKhuf, Cheops in Greek) during the 4th dynasty of the old kingdom  
Time to build  Probably max. 23 years (Khufu reigned from 2551 to 2528 before Christ *). Herodotus writes about 10 years of preparation and 20 years of building (details of the text)  
Per day  With 2'500'000 stones 342 stones have to be moved daily (working during 365 days a year) or 431 stones daily (working during 290 days a year).  
Per minute 
10hour day: every 2 minutes a stone (34 to 43 per hour) 

Rule of thumb 
For our calculations we assume 500 stones a day. This is a rough estimate, assuming a 8hour day, during 290 days a year, with 20 years to build the pyramid. Also assuming, that more time had to be used for the huge granite blocks for the King's chamber and for the more difficult upper part of the pyramid, where work went slower than in the lower parts. There probably were also other factors delaying the building of the pyramid such as the weather or a temporary shortage of certain building materials. 
The Khufupyramid (Cheops) probably originally had 210 stone layers. At 50m height already 82% of the entire pyramid was built [3].
Quarrying stones for the pyramid
Shipping the stone blocks down the Nile to Giza
Transporting the stone blocks using a sledge on tracks
Löhner's
rope roll
Stone blocks  
2'300'000 stones  
Casing blocks  115'000 to 200'000 stones or 67'390m³ [1]  
Total blocks  2'500'000 stones  
Stone layers  Originally probably 210 stone layers, now only 201 layers [2]  
Stone size  The stone blocks usually are larger in the lower layers (1.5m = 3 cubit) and smaller in the upper layers. Most are between 1.5 and 2 cubit large (average of 127 x 127 x 71cm). 1 cubit = 0.524m  Details  
Weight of the stone blocks  With an average density of 2,6  2,9 t/m³ the large limestone blocks weighted 6.5  10 tons and the smaller ones about 1.3 tons. For all calculations on this website an average weight of 2.5 tons was used.  
Special blocks  For the King's chamber granite blocks weighting 40 to 50 tons were used  
Total weight  6'500'000 tons (average weight of a block was about 2.5 tons)  
Pyramidion  The final stone on the top was a large block in the shape of a pyramid. It was perhaps around 1.5m by 1.5m wide and 1.3m high (about 3 cubits). It was made from white Tura limestone (Turah), granite or perhaps diorite and perhaps gold plated. More information  
Building materials  Pyramid: Nummulite limestone from quarries
about 200400m south of the pyramid were used for the core stones. 
Length (a)  
The average length of the edge is ~ 230.360m (230,12m = 440 cubits). Northern edge 230.328m  eastern edge 230.369m  southern edge 230.372m  western edge 230.372m. Largest difference is only 4.4cm. [3]  
Height (h)  Originally 146.59m high (= 280 cubits), the pyramid is now only 138.75m high [7]  
Diagonal (d)  325.77m  
Ridge (g)  219m  
Height of the lateral surface  186.42m  
Pyramid angle α  51° 50' 40'' = inclination of the lateral surface (= 52° rounded off) [3] which corresponds to a seked of 5½ palms  
Pyramid angle β  58.3° = the two angles of the triangular lateral surface (62° = angle of the apex or tip of the pyramid)  nearly forming an equilateral triangle!  
Pyramid angle γ  41.9° = angle of the ridge  
Corner angle  Right angle base with angles from 89° 59' to 90°  
Base area  53'065.73m²  
Superficies surface  85'890.69m²  
Pyramid volume  2'592'968.43m³ including the rock core. This would be a cube with a length of 137.38m. Probable volume of stones used: 2'583'283m³ [1] or 2'326'501m³ [2].  
Alignment  Exactly to the north (deviation only 2' 28'')  
Latitude and longitude  N 29° 58’ 44.3830” latitude and E 31° 07’ 57.0194” longitude [5]  
Altitude  The base of the pyramid of Khufu lies about 60m above sea level, so the tip of the pyramid used to be on 206m above sea level [6]. 
Alignment of the pyramids and controlling the shape of the pyramid (northsouth alignment etc.)
Length (a)  440 Royal Cubits  
Height (h)  280 Royal Cubits  
Height of the lateral surface (c)  356 Royal Cubits (356.09)  
Diagonal (d)  622.25 Royal Cubits  
Ridge (g)  418.56 Royal Cubits  
Pyramid angle α  51.843°  
Pyramid angle β  58.3°  
Pyramid angle γ  41.9°  
Corner angle  90° 
It is suggested, that the Egyptians used a right angled triangle to determinate
the angle of inclination of the pyramid, using the numbers a=11 and b=14
with c=17.8 (or a=22  b=28  c= 35.6). This determines a so called seked
of 5½ palms.
Alignment of the pyramids and controlling the shape of the pyramid (seked)
[1] M. Lehner The Complete
Pyramids of Egypt
[2] G. Goyon Die CheopsPyramide
[3] R. Stadelmann Die grossen
Pyramiden von Giza
[4] F. Abitz Der Bau der grossen Pyramide
mit einem Schrägaufzug
[5] GPScoordinates of a brass disk on top of the pyramid of Khufu, Giza
Plateau Mapping Project (GPMP)
[6] Maps of the Giza Plateau Mapping Project show the altitude as 60m
[7] D. Arnold Building in Egypt
* Dates according to conventional Egyptian chronology are used in this website. These are based on several list of the dynasties of pharaohs, for example the Aegyptiaca of Manetho of Sebennytos.
Credits:  Copyright 2006: 
Franz Löhner www.cheopspyramide.ch 
Concept and Design, English Texts: 
Teresa (Zubi) Zuberbühler www.starfish.ch 